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A. The son of David, the son of Abraham.(Mt 1:1) (Ἀβραὰμ, Δαυὶδ, χριστοῦ)
. . . B1 Genealogy from Abraham (Mt 1:2-6) (ἐγέννησεν)
. . . B2 Genealogy from David (Mt 1:7-11) (ἐγέννησεν)
. . . B3 Genealogy after captivity (Mt 1:12-16) (ἐγέννησεν)
A^ From Abraham to David is fourteen generations (Mt 1:17) (Ἀβραὰμ, Δαυὶδ, χριστοῦ)
Where, "A" = The name of Abraham, David and Jesus. "B" = Three genealogies arranged in parallel.
A. (1) The book of the generation of Jesus Christ,
. . . B. (1) the son of David,
. . . . . . C. (1) the son of Abraham.
. . . . . . C^ (17) So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations;
. . . B^ (17) and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations;
A^ (17) and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations.
A. Decided to divorce her quietly.(Mt 1:18-19) (ἀπολῦσαι αὐτήν)
. . . B. You are to name him Jesus (Mt 1:20-21) (καλέσεις τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ)
. . . . . . C. All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had said through the prophet: (Mt 1:22)
. . . B^ They shall name him Emmanuel (Mt 1:23) (καλέσουσιν τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ )
A^ Angel of the Lord commands Joseph to take his wife home, and he complies (Mt 1:24-25) (παρέλαβεν τὴν γυναῖκα)
Where, "A" = The change of Joseph's behavior, "B" = The words of the angel and the OT, "C" = Fulfillment of God's words.
A. John’s Message: Repent for the Kingdom of Heaven is near (Mt 3:1-2)
. . . B. Prophecy of Isaiah 40:3 (Mt 3:3)
. . . . . . C. John’s Asceticism (Mt 3:4)
. . . . . . . . . D. Israel’s Baptism by John (Mt 3:5-6)
. . . . . . . . . . . . E. Warning of Judgment (Mt 3:7)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Bear Good Fruit (Mt 3:8)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. The Children of Abraham (Mt 3:9)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F^ Bear Good Fruit (Mt 3:10)
. . . . . . . . . . . . E^ Warning of Judgment (Mt 3:11-12)
. . . . . . . . . D^ Jesus’ Baptism by John (Mt 3:13-17)
. . . . . . C^ Jesus’ Asceticism & Testing (Mt 4:1-11) (See this post)
. . . B^ Prophecy of Isaiah 9:1-2 (Mt 4:12-16)
A^ Jesus’ Message: Repent for the Kingdom of Heaven is near (Mt 4:17) (See this post)
A. Calling of Simon and Andrew (Mt 4:18) (εῖδεν δύο ἀδελφούς)
. . . B. Come after me (Mt 4:19) (ὀπίσω μου)
. . . . . . C. At once they left their nets and followed him.(Mt 4:20) (ἀφέντες, ἠκολούθησαν)
A^ Calling of James and John (Mt 4:21a) (εῖδεν ἄλλους δύο ἀδελφούς)
. . . B^ He called them (Mt 4:21b) (ἐκάλεσεν αὐτούς)
. . . . . . C^ Immediately they left their boat and father and followed him. (Mt 4:22) (ἀφέντες, ἠκολούθησαν)
Where, "A" = Jesus sees brothers, "B" = Words of Jesus, "C" = The brothers leave past and follow Jesus.
A. around all of Galilee (Mt 4:23a) (Γαλιλαίᾳ)
. . . B. curing (Mt 4:23b) (θεραπεύων)
. . . . . . C. His fame spread to all of Syria (Mt 4:24)
. . . B^ he cured them (Mt 4:24) (ἐθεράπευσεν)
A^ from Galilee, the Decapolis, Jerusalem, and Judea (Mt 4:25)" (Γαλιλαίας)
Where, "A" = Galilee and its neighbors, "B" = Jesus heals, "C" = The spreading fame.
The rich young man (Matt 19:16-22) (Copied and edited from here.)
A. someone approached him (Mt 19:16) (εἶς προσελθὼν)
. . . B. If you wish to enter into life, keep the commandments. (Mt 19:17) (εἰ δὲθέλεις)
. . . . . . C. Question of the man (Mt 19:18a) (λέγει αὐτῷ)
. . . . . . . . . D. Commandment of the Old Testament (Mt 19:18b-19)
. . . . . . C^ Question of the man (Mt 19:20) (λέγει αὐτῷ)
. . . B^ If you wish to be perfect, go, sell what you have and give to (the) poor (Mt 19:21)" (εἰ θέλεις)
A^ he went away sad (Mt 19:22) (ἀπῆλθεν)
Legend: A: Arrival and leaving of rich man. B: Conditions set by Jesus. C: Questions of man. D: List of commands.
About the Danger of Riches (Matt 19:23-29) (Copied and edited from here.)
A. hard for rich to enter the kingdom of heaven. (Mt 19:23-24) (τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν)
. . . B. Who then can be saved? (Mt 19:25) (τίς ἄρα δύαται σωθῆναι)
. . . . . . C. for God all things are possible. (Mt 19:26)
. . . B^ What will there be for us? (Mt 19:27) (τί ἄρα ἔσται ἡμῖν)
A^ will sit on thrones, judging tribes of Israel, many things now, eternal life. (Mt 19:28-29) (θρόνου)
Legend: A: Kingdom of heaven/Eternal life. B: Questions of disciples. C: The Almighty God.
The rich man (Mark 10:17-31) (Copied and edited from here.)
A. what must I do to inherit eternal life? (Mr 10:17-19) (ζωὴν αἰώνιον)
. . . B. all of these I have observed from my youth. (Mr 10:20) (πάντα)
. . . . . . C. At that statement his face fell, and he went away sad (Mr 10:21-22)
. . . . . . . . . D. How hard for wealthy to enter the kingdom of God! (10:23-24a) (τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεου)
. . . . . . . . . D^ how hard it is to enter the kingdom of God! (Mr 10:24b-25) (τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ)
. . . . . . C^ For human beings it is impossible, but not for God (Mr 10:26-27)
. . . B^ We have given up everything and followed you. (Mr 10:28) (πάντα)
A^ eternal life in the age to come. (Mr 10:29-31) (ζωὴν αἰώνιον)
Legend: A: Eternal Life. B: Doing everything. C: Impossible for human. D: Entering into kingdom of God.
The rich ruler (Luke 18:18-30) (Copied and edited from here.)
A. to inherit eternal life (Lu 18:18) (ζωὴν αἰώνιον)
. . . B. No one is good but God alone. (Lu 18:19-21) (ὁ θεός)
. . . . . . C. a treasure in heaven (18:22-23) (οὐρανοῖς)
. . . . . . C^ How hard for wealthy to enter kingdom of God! (Lu 18:24-25) (τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεου)
. . . B^ What is impossible for human is possible for God. (Lu 18:26-27) (τῷ θεῷ)
A^ eternal life (Lu 18:28-30) (ζωὴν αἰώνιον)
Legend: A: Eternal life. B: The greatness of God. C: Entering into the kingdom of God.
A. But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first. (Mt 19:30)
. . B. Kingdom of heaven is like a householder, who went out to hire laborers in his vineyard. (Mt 20:1)
. . . . C. He had agreed with laborers for a denarius a day, and sent them into his vineyard (Mt 20:2)
. . . . . . D. Third, sixth, ninth hour, he saw others, said, Go into the vineyard, whatever is right I'll give (Mt 20:3-4)
. . . . . . . . E. 11th hour he went out, found others, said, Go also; whatever is right I'll give (Mt 20:6-7)
. . . . . . . . . . X. At evening master said call the laborers, give them their pay, from last to first. (Mt 20:8)
. . . . . . . . E^ Eleventh hour workers all received a denarius. (Mt 20:9)
. . . . . . D^ The first came, supposed they get more; received a denarius, murmured against owner (Mt 20:10-12)
. . . . C^ He answered, I do no wrong: didn't you agree for a denarius? Take yours and go: I give equally (Mt 20:13-14)
. . B^ Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine? Or is your eye evil, because I am good? (Mt 20:15)
A^ So the last shall be first, and the first last (Mt 20:16)
Note: The classic chiasm – “the first shall be last, and the last first” is repeated at the end of this parable but in reverse – “the last shall be first, and the first last”! In between, the parable is a dramatised chiasm – the first labourers are called up last and vice versa. This clearly demonstrates that chiasm is a conscious technique in the mind of Christ for teaching disciples and not merely an editorial tool for inspired gospel writers.
Jesus adds: “But many who are first will be last and the last first.” (Matthew 19:30) What does he mean?
The rich young ruler is among the “first,” being among the leaders of the Jews. As an observer of God’s commandments, he shows much promise and much might be expected of him. Yet he is putting riches and possessions ahead of all else in life. In contrast, the common people of the land see in Jesus’ teaching the truth and the way to life. They have been “last,” so to speak, but they are now coming to be “first.” They can look forward to sitting on thrones in heaven with Jesus and ruling over the Paradise earth.
In the Bible, we sometimes find a structure called chiasmus, and these will follow a pattern of ABC CBA and occasionally ABC D CBA, with everything building up to a central point and then returning from that point to the opening statement. Such a structure exists between Matthew 17:22 and Matthew 20:19. Beginning in Matthew 17:22, Jesus speaks of His own deliverance to death. The parallel point begins in chapter 20:17, where He returns to the declaration of His death and resurrection. These serve as bookends [an "inclusio" - Bobcat] to a chiasm building to a very important point between them. The structure is as follows:
Jesus foretells His death: Matthew 17:22-23
A. Jesus speaks of giving freely/sacrificing self: Matthew 17:24-27
. . . B. Little children are the essence of the kingdom: Matthew 18:1-7
. . . . . . C. Sacrifice the body for the sake of the kingdom: Matthew 18:8-9
. . . . . . . . . D. Do not despise what God values: Matthew 18:10-14
. . . . . . . . . . . . E. Entreating a brother about sin or offense: Matthew 18:15-17
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X. Agreement between Heaven and Earth: Matthew 18:18-20
. . . . . . . . . . . . E^ Entreating a brother about sin or offense: Matthew 18:21-35
. . . . . . . . . D^ Do not despise what God values: Matthew 19:1-9
. . . . . . C^ Sacrifice the body for the sake of the kingdom: Matthew 19:10-12
. . . B^ Little children are the essence of the kingdom: Matthew 19:13-15
A^ Jesus speaks of giving freely/sacrificing self: Matthew 19:16-20:16
Jesus foretells His death: Matthew 20:17-19
The Building Points: Humility & Self-Sacrifice
A. Giving. In Matthew 17:24-27, Jesus uses the temple tax as an illustration of His divinity. Then, in Matthew 19:16, a wealthy young man approaches Jesus who asks what he needs for salvation. Jesus tells the young man to sacrifice of His goods. The man turns away, and Jesus observes wealth makes Heaven a difficult goal. The point of these lessons is that glory comes as a result of sacrifice. The apostles in these verses take some pride in what they have sacrificed, and He tells them they have done as they should do. We treat our wealth and our possessions as our right, but remember Philippians 2:5. Jesus gives up all that is His to accomplish an act of mercy and grace.
B. Be Like Children. Matthew 18:1-7 records the apostles asking how to be the greatest in His kingdom, and Jesus teaches a lesson in humility. Humility is necessary for sacrifice. Children come to Jesus in Matthew 19:13, but the apostles seek to prevent them approaching Him. Jesus rebukes His apostles, calling on them to become as humble, pure, and innocent as children. Philippians 2:8 reminds us that Jesus humbled Himself to the point of death.
C. Sacrificing Self for the Kingdom. Matthew 18:8 asks if we are willing to go so far as giving up appendages for the sake of the kingdom. This is sacrifice in relationship to the value of the kingdom. In Matthew 19:10, as Jesus is being asked about divorce, the apostles proclaim that it would be better for man to remain unmarried if divorce is so restricted. Jesus answers them that some do sacrifice the pleasures of marriage for the sake of the kingdom. That is how much the kingdom is worth, a kingdom for which Jesus gave up His life.
D. Valuing What God Values. In Matthew 18:10, Jesus calls on His followers to value those that God values. He calls on them to treat one another the way God treats them, ever aware of their needs, ever caring for them, ever seeing them as valuable. He uses the illustration of a lost sheep to make His point. The corresponding passage in Matthew 19:1-9 is in the context of marriage, where Jesus calls on those around Him to respect marriage as much as God does. We should value what God values.
E. Concern for a Sinning Brother. Matthew 18:15-17 directs us in dealing with sin in others. Jesus does not instruct us to stew over the offense or complain to others about it. He details a pattern that demonstrates concern over the individual overtaken in sin. The goal is restoration and reconciliation, as God’s plan for mankind focuses on redemption. In Matthew 18:21, Jesus returns to the theme of sin when Peter asks him how often he should forgive one who sins against him. Jesus answers with a parable about a servant seeking mercy for his debt. The king forgives the servant his debt but grows angry with that servant when he is unwilling to show the same mercy to a fellow debtor. As we want forgiveness from our Father, we should show that same mercy to those around us.
The Center of the Chiasm: Unity Between Heaven & Earth
Matthew 18:18-20 records Jesus talking about agreement between Heaven and Earth. His apostles will do and say what has been decreed in Heaven. We must do as the Father decrees in all things. Our words and actions should agree with the pattern given from Heaven. Just as Moses and the children of Israel had to follow God’s pattern in the Old Testament, we too have to respect His authority and follow His plan. We move when God moves, and we stop where God stops. This is the theme of the chiasm between Matthew chapters 17-20.
There must be unity among us as disciples if there is to be fellowship in Heaven. Jesus speaks of God being among those gathered in His name, and, if we are truly living in His name, then we will be sacrificial in our lives; we will be humble as children; concerned about sin; valuing what God values; and putting the kingdom first in our lives. These qualities will help us achieve that mind of Christ we read of Philippians 2, forsaking self to draw closer to God.
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